An ELT Glossary : Partitive nouns

 Partitive nouns, as the word suggests,  are nouns which express the concept that the item described is only a part but not the whole of the item then referred to. For example (with the partitive nouns underlined) :

slice of bread    a blade of grass    a drop of rain    

piece of research    a clove of garlic    a bit of cheese

teaspoonful of sugar    an item of news    a bout of 'flu    

fit of anger    a cup of tea    a bottle of wine    

bar of chocolate    a third of the water   a pint of milk


As these examples show, they are typically used with  nouns used uncountably (bread, news, rain, anger) etc, but being themselves countable can be used to allow you to "count" those nouns :

two slices of bread     regular fits of anger     several items of news  etc

Some partitives  - such as a piece of or a bit of - can be used with a wide variety of nouns. Others are more restricted in their collocations - for example, a clove of . Try looking at the examples above. How many words can you think of which collocate with each partitive? Do they come from different lexical fields or the same lexical field(s)?

Confused? If as you've been reading this you've found yourself thinking But... but..., don't worry - you're not alone. There's a lot of confusion about the term, with different grammars discussing it in different ways.  I therefore recommend also looking at the following : 




Teaching High Level Lexis to Business English Learners



This article looks at why learners of Business English might need a higher receptive knowledge of lexis than they possess productively. It also suggests that this type of lexis can best be taught using authentic materials, and suggests a schema for developing materials around authentic texts taken from the business press and TV.


Do business English students need phrasal verbs, metaphorical and idiomatic language, and the full range of lexis used by native speakers? Many learners will use English predominantly as a lingua franca (1) to speak to other non-native speakers : for example, the German sales representative on a business trip to China, or the Italian civil servant at an EU meeting with Norwegian, Dutch and Hungarian counterparts. The English used in these situations will differ radically from that used by native speakers, and in particular will involve a far more restricted range of lexis. One might argue therefore that these learners have no need of the extended lexical range used in Britain, America, Australia and so on, and that these features can be excluded from our teaching.

However, if the students are in frequent contact with native speakers – for instance if they are working for an American multinational or take frequent business trips there – then the situation changes. They may not need these expressions productively, but they will almost certainly need them receptively. And even learners whose main contact is with other non-native speakers may still want to read the business press, for instance The Financial Times or The Economist, or to follow the business news on international channels such as CNN or BBC World.
These publications and TV channels, despite being intended for an international audience, use idiomatic English frequently. Here are a few examples of phrasal verbs, idioms etc that I heard being used within fifteen minutes in the BBC World business news last night :
  • …it tried to fend off a hostile takeover
  • So do you think they’re up to scratch?
  • … there are some countries which will have to leave if we set the bar too high.
  • … the Chinese government will now have to rubber-stamp the deal.
  • …at the moment the company is flush with cash.
  • … the company will have to trim its workforce.
  • … the FTSE had a roaring start to the day.
And looking at just the first article on the Financial Times’ website this morning, you find :
  • …… a sweeping initiative
  • …. financial market regulations, ….. which many US-listed European companies feel are too cumbersome
  • She also spelt out her determination to …
  • Ms Merkel, who also holds the chair of the Group of Eight .. is underlining the importance she attaches to restoring transatlantic ties
  • … a similar move by the European Commission in 1998 petered out because of French opposition …
How should we deal with this type of language in the classroom? There are various things to keep in mind :
  • For all but the most advanced students, this type of language is far more useful receptively than productively, and can be left on a receptive level. This does not mean, however, that it can be introduced once and then forgotten. Each expression will need to be recycled a number of times if it is to be assimilated.
  • The number of expressions of this type is enormous, and we are never going to be able to cover them all. An approach which, at the same time as teaching them, allows students to develop the ability to infer their meaning from context is likely to be far more useful than a “Here’s the explanation, now memorise it” type of approach.
  • Where meaning is metaphorical (for example, as in the use of trim or set the bar too high above), understanding literal meaning can help the students infer the meaning in the specific context in which the expression is used.
  • Where the meaning of the words is opaque (fend off, peter out, up to scratch), meaning can be inferred only if there are sufficient clues in the context itself. (2)
  • Some expressions will have a high frequency in business English – a good example is the range of expressions used to describe trends. Looking at the second article on today’s FT website, you find amongst others : recover, edge higher, rally, gains were slim, and topped. However, others will be drawn from more general English, and are therefore likely to be less predictable – for example, up to scratch or to spell out
An approach based on frequent use of authentic materials can help with the introduction of this type of language. If items are high frequency they will naturally occur regularly, while the materials will also contain a more random selection of other, more general expressions. The materials used can be kept short. If you use the BBC business news, for instance, it’s not necessary to use the whole fifteen minute programme – you could just focus on one or two items. If your materials are on video, you can obviously prepare in advance, but even if you want to watch live with the student, you can also semi-prepare. One of the best things about BBC World is that the news is repeated constantly, and though the speakers are live the script remains more or less the same. It’s therefore possible to watch an item, take notes of the language and decide how you want to present it, then watch it live with the student a couple of hours later. I do this frequently with my one-to-one students, and have only once been caught out – an important story broke in the time between my preparation and the lesson, and changed the content of the programme completely!

If you do have access to videoed materials though (or if you’re using a written text), it’s obviously far easier. In this case I might use a lesson format like the following :

1. Vocabulary Presentation : the students have a worksheet containing the lexis they are unlikely to know presented in context, and have to infer the meaning. This can be done using a multiple choice format :

For the New Zealand tourism industry, the summer has got off to a roaring start with visitor numbers up by seven percent. 

a) started excellently 
b) started badly

If the expression in the text is metaphorical, I would present it in its literal context, focusing on the specific words liable to create problems, for instance :
The high jump competition was a disaster. They set the bar too high in the first round, and all but two of the competitors were eliminated immediately. 

a) jumped 
b) put



2. Warm up discussion : Students discuss what, if anything, they know about the topic(s) discussed in the text. For example : Bulgaria and Romania have just been admitted to the European Union. What do you know about the economy and/or standard of living of the two countries? What effect is their accession likely to have?


3. Gist Listening (or Reading) : Students listen to or read the text to find out if it makes the same points that they discussed, or deals with different issues.

4. Detailed Listening (or Reading) : Students listen or read again, this time to answer a detailed set of questions which, amongst other things, tests their recognition and understanding of the lexical items focused in stage 1. For example :
Why does the speaker think some countries might leave the EU? 

a) because of conflict with other member states 
b) because they don’t agree with the Euro 
c) because they are unable to meet the requirements imposed by Brussels.


5. Vocabulary Focus: Students have a gapped transcript of the text. They either listen again and complete the gaps (which among other things will include the target expressions) or, if they have previously read the text, try and complete it from memory (if this is too difficult, the missing words can be given in scrambled order.)

6. For homework, and in lessons to come, the students will be given consolidation activities which recycle the expressions taught on the course so far. These might include :
a) Type the expressions into Google and find two or three more sentences using each one.
b) A set of sentences using synonymous expressions. The students have to pair them with the target expressions which are given in scrambled order.
c) Gapped sentences – what’s the missing word (with or without the words provided in scrambled order.)

Notes

(1) For an excellent discussion on English as a Lingua Franca, see this collection of articles from The Guardian. The article by Jennifer Jenkins and Barbara Seidhofer is particularly interesting.
(2) For a discussion of what makes meaning inferable from context or not, see the article Inferring Unknown Words from Context : Part One and Part Two
Photo provided under Creative Commons Licence by Michael Stamenov via flickr

Further Reading ...


Emmerson, P. Five-Minute Activities for Business English, Cambridge



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