An ELT Glossary : Binomial and trinomial expressions
Binomials are fixed lexical chunks which consist of two words of the same word class joined by a co-ordinating conjunction. Trinomials have three words of the same class joined by a co-ordinating conjunction.
Examples - Binomials
sick and tired
ups and downs
sink or swim
poor but honest
slowly but surely
Examples - Trinomials
hook, line and sinker
tall, dark and handsome
beg, steal or borrow
lock, stock and barrel
- Binomials and trinomials are fully fixed - items cannot be substituted, and the order of the items cannot be reversed.
- They often include devices such as alliteration (repetition of the same consonant sound), eg part and parcel, sink or swim - or rhyme, eg hustle and bustle, wine and dine, make or break.
McCarthy (1990) suggests that many of these expressions exist in other languages, but may cause problems for learners because of a reverse in the order of the constituents in the L1 expression - eg Gentlemen and Ladies in Malay, rather than the English Ladies and Gentlemen.
McCarthy, M. 1990, Vocabulary, OUP
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