The overall purpose of the lesson is :
· To teach in order to and so that to introduce clauses of reason/purpose
Class : The class consists of 12 adult learners, all Italian L1, at a good CEFR B1 level. The classroom is equipped with an IWB.
Lesson : 60 mins
Presupposed knowledge : Learners will already know the use of to + infinitive to express purpose. They will have met the expanded form in order to, but will not use it spontaneously
Stage One (15 mins)
a) T/class : The T. shows the learners a picture of a bicycle on the IWB. Elicits what it is focuses on a few connected words and expressions : wheels, tyres, flat tyre, handlebars, saddle, to ride a bike, to fall off a bike
b) T/class : T. explains the activity : she will “give” the bike to the group that comes up with the best reason for wanting it, whether for the group as a whole or for one individual.
c) GW discussion : T monitors noting reasons that ss think of. Notes on the board what they say using because – eg I need the bike because there’s a lot of traffic in the mornings and I could get to work more quickly The first reason is written up on one IWB page, leaving space below. The others (approx 5) are written up on the next page.
d) T/Class : T asks each group to explain their reasons for wanting the bike, and “awards” the picture to the group with the best idea.
Stage Two (5 mins)
T/Class : T. focuses on the first reason written on the IWB. Establishes that it is correct, but tells the class that they’re going to look at other ways of expressing reasons. Asks Ss if they can say the same thing using to instead of because : eg – I need the bike to get to work quickly in the morning. T. confirms the sentence but writes up I need the bike -------- --------- to get to work quickly in the morning. Asks Ss what the missing words are and elicits or feeds in in order. Explains the phrase as an alternative version of the infinitive of purpose.
Stage Three (10 mins)
a) T/Class : T shows the next “reason” noted on the board, and asks Ss to transform it to a sentence using in order to. When she is confident that they have understood, she asks them to continue working on the other sentences in pairs.
b) PW : Ss rewrite the boarded sentences using in order to. T. monitors to check that Ss are on task and helping if necessary.
c) T/Class : Answers elicited and confirmed corrected.
Stage Four (10 mins)
a) T/Class : shows the next picture on the IWB – an ipad. Elicits what it is and what you can do with it. Tells Ss it’s the next “prize”.
b) GW Discussion : T. monitors noting language used and feeding in lexis if asked. When Ss have decided, stops the activity and asks them to plan what they are going to say to the class. Asks them to justify their need for the ipad using in order to. Gives planning time.
c) T/Class : T. elicits the reasons (with in order to) and writes on board. Awards the “prize”.
Stage Five (10 mins)
a) T/Class : T. focuses on the first reason written on the IWB. Reads it out, but converts it to so that. Elicits what she said from the class, and writes it up under the original sentence. Focus on SV syntax of new sentence.
b) T/Class then PW : T. asks Ss to transform the other sentences from stage 4c, then in pairs to transform those from stage 3c. T monitors to check Ss are on task, helping as necessary.
c) T/ class : T elicits answers, confirms or corrects
Stage Six (10 mins)
a) GW : T shows the next picture – a baby elephant – and groups discuss their reasons for wanting it. T monitors language use and feeds in lexis if asked. When Ss have decided, stops the activity and asks them to plan what they are going to say to the class. Asks them to justify their need for the elephant using so that. Gives planning time.
c) T/Class : T. elicits the reasons (with so that). Awards the “prize”.
Stage Seven (if time)
The activity continues using other pictures (a bucket of mud, a glass of water, a digital camera, a Ferrari etc). The T. monitors for language use, but no longer “pushes” the learners into using the TL during the report stage.